Your opening post linked to the Expressions page of the wiki—not <<display>>'s pseudo-macro syntax—and a "shorthand" in this context usually refers to the <<print>> shorthand, thus my confusion.
Pseudo-macros, which is what that feature of <<display>> is actually called (unsure why the wiki calls it a shorthand), only exists within the Twine 1.4 vanilla story formats.
SugarCube supported a similar feature, widget macros, quite a while before the pseudo-macro syntax for <<display>> was added to the vanilla formats. Widgets were already in use by SugarCube users so I couldn't drop them, even if I'd wanted to, and I saw no reason to support essentially the same feature twice—especially since widgets are, arguably, superior.
TL;DR: Neither SugarCube's <<include>>, nor its deprecated <<display>>—the latter being simply an alias of the former now—support pseudo-macros because SugarCube has widget macros instead.